Introduction and Background
In the 1830s, an astute French interpreter of United States society, Alexis de Tocqueville, observed that Americans had a “lively faith in human perfectibility” and that, as a society, they believed they were “a body progressing” rather than one declining or stable. If anything, de Tocqueville understated this belief, for the concept of America as a Utopia in the making has permeated the national ideology since before the republic’s birth. This article is about Utopianism and American Space Exploration
American Faith in Progress and Utopianism
From Thomas Jefferson’s stirring statement in the Declaration of Independence requiring governments to promote the inherent rights of “Life, Freedom, and the Seeking of Happiness” to Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young’s lyrical refrain “We can change the world, rearrange the world. It’s dying—to get better,” the quest for Utopia has been a significant subtext of American life.
Utopianism and its Effect on Space Exploration
America is characterized by faith in progress, the belief that a better future lies ahead, and optimism about humanity’s ability to improve its condition. The strong utopian impulse prevalent in American intellectual thought and political life finds its counterpart in the nation’s space community.
Human vs. Robotic Spaceflight
Tapping into the deep wellspring of American utopian ideals, those who argue for an aggressive human flight program base their case at a fundamental level on the positive social changes thought to result from that effort. By linking their advocacy to fundamental utopian values, spaceflight enthusiasts have justified considerable funding for their grand designs despite their relatively small numbers.
The Role of Migration in Utopianism and Space Exploration
Consequently, Utopian thought has been a driving force behind human and robotic spaceflight, as it implies a process of starting over and moving beyond the confines of existing societies. Thus, from New England’s religious settlements to the American West’s utopian communities, utopianism has been closely linked with migration.
Advocates of Space Migration and Utopianism
Extended to space, the romantic ideal requires the creation of new communities well removed from Earth in the same way that the New World was separated from the Old World. This necessitates human migration as the core activity. The limitation of spaceflight to robotic explorers cannot fulfill this impulse.
Separation of Civil and Military Space Activities in the United States
Robots might be helpful to servants—even the modern equivalent of enslaved people making human lives luxurious—. Still, the central goal for space travel, as utopians see it, remains humans in space. The scientific understanding gained from automated spacecraft is decidedly less necessary from this point of view. With their frequent appeals to its scientific virtues, advocates of robotic flight consistently fail to address this fundamental impulse.
Utopianism and the Definition of Space Exploration in the United States
The circumstances affecting spaceflight in the United States, notably the separation of civil from military space activities, created a forum in which advocates of space migration could press their vision without the extensive encumbrance posed by the necessities of national security. To the extent that the United States leads the world in space exploration, it also leads in defining that enterprise in utopian terms.
“Apollo, Utopia, and the Pro-Space Movement
The successful completion of Project Apollo, which landed an American on the moon, fueled the rise of the pro-space movement. It raised the hopes of those dreaming of a great human utopia in space and suggested that America had the capability and the money to accomplish astounding goals.
Apollo and the Utopian Vision:
The success of Apollo sparked the dreams of space utopians who believed anything was possible. They saw it as a step towards a human utopia in space. Senator Ribicoff proclaimed that human potential was boundless after the successful moon landing. Read more about: Political Theology of Space and Utopia
Moving Beyond Societal Issues:
The concept of humanity moving into space, first through expeditions of discovery and later through the establishment of colonies, offered humankind the opportunity to rise above the societal issues that divided it. Space offered a fresh start, where different elements of society could come together and establish a new way of living. Apollo proved it was possible to achieve genuinely great goals. The only missing ingredient was the will to make it happen.
America’s Capability for Astounding Goals:
The success of Apollo showed the world that America had the capability and the resources to achieve incredible feats. This inspired the imagination of space enthusiasts who saw it as a sign of America’s strength and ingenuity. For those who believed in the power of utopia, the success of Apollo was a critical step toward a brighter future for humanity. To establish a permanent human presence in space, the country faced even greater challenges. Read a detail about Human Space Exploration: Space Exploration
The Importance of Will:
For the space utopians, the key ingredient missing was the will to make it happen. They believed that the dream of a human utopia in space was within reach. It only took determination to pursue it. The pro-space movement gained momentum, and the vision of human colonization of other planets became a legitimate topic of discussion. The future of humanity was no longer limited to the boundaries of Earth. But expanded to the limitless expanse of space.